The International Crisis Group published a solid report on 17 October 2011 titled “South Sudan: Compounding Instability in Unity State.” Situated along the North-South border and the source of much of the South’s known oil deposits, Unity is a strategic territory and primary source of South Sudan’s revenue. Politics in Unity are deeply polarized. Its people, land and social fabric were devastated by two decades of conflict that pitted national forces, border-area proxies, southern rebels and its own ethnic Nuer clans against one another.
Recent rebel militia activity has drawn considerable attention to Unity State, highlighting internal fractures and latent grievances. The fault lines in Unity run deeper than the rebellions. A governance crisis has polarized state politics and sown seeds of discontent. Territorial disputes, cross-border tensions, economic isolation, lack of development and a still tenuous North-South relationship also fuel instability.
You can read the entire report here.