The Institute for Security Studies published in September 2014 a paper titled "Radicalisation in Kenya: Recruitment to al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council" by Anneli Botha.
The goal of the paper is to determine why and how individuals join al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council (MRC). It is based on interviews with Kenyan and Somali-Kenyan individuals associated with al-Shabaab and the MRC. The author emphasizes that the organizations have different goals. Al-Shabaab pursues an Islamist terrorist agenda while the MRC pursues a secessionist agenda. He concludes that as long as Kenyans exclusively identify on an ethnic/religious basis that is perceived to be under threat, radicalization will increase.