The Small Arms Survey published in April 2012 a thorough analysis of arms flows and holdings in South Sudan titled Reaching for the Gun. Key findings in the report include:
--In 2010-2011, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) acquired large quantities of small arms and light weapons and their ammunition, 10 Russian-manufactured Mi-17 transport helicopters and 33 T-72 battle tanks.
--Ukraine has been South Sudan's principal supplier of weapons since 2005; much of its ammunition is of Chinese origin, although it may have come from third parties. Kenya and Uganda have been used as transshipment points for onward delivery to South Sudan. Ethiopia has been a significant source of weapons for the SPLA.
--From November 2010 to May 2011, the South Sudan Police Service marked 41,200 firearms distributed among various official security forces, permitting it to trace a number of firearms that leaked out of state control to non-state actors.
--South Sudanese rebel militia groups are well equipped with both small and large calibre arms and light weapons. They have consistent access to new weapons from the Sudan Armed Forces and, to a lesser degree, from the SPLA, and a number of governments both inside and outside the region.
--Although the SPLA and the SPLA-North officially separated in July 2011, military and logistical cooperation and collaboration between the two forces continues.
--The SPLA is unable to demonstrate adequate controls over its existing arsenal; loses in battle are routine and poor stockpile security is the norm.
Click here to read the entire report.