The May 2016 issue of Development Policy Review published a study titled "'Going Out' or Staying In? The Expansion of Chinese NGOs in Africa" by Jennifer Hsu, University of Alberta, Timothy Hildebrandt, London School of Economics and Political Science, and Reza Hasmath, Oxford.
The study examines the overseas behavior of Chinese NGOs in Ethiopia and Malawi and concludes they are yet to make a substantial impact in either nation. The study suggests that the Chinese model of international development will continue to be one where temporary one-off projects are favored. Insofar as social organizations play a role, they will be government organized NGOs rather than grassroots NGOs.