|Brazil pavilion at 2010 Shanghai Expo. Flickr/thewamphyri|
China only recently has become involved in triangular cooperation with other donors, most frequently with international institutions such as the Food and Agricultural Organization and less commonly bilaterally with countries like the UK.
Multiple Chinese stakeholders intervene in the agricultural sector without any real coordination. Their interventions are increasingly managed by major public and private Chinese companies as well as by development banks. Financing agricultural and rural developments is increasingly tied to other infrastructure projects through concessional loans.
Much criticism has been directed towards China's technical cooperation where dialogue remains difficult and where extension services are becoming fee based.