The Conversation published on 27 February 2017 a research summary titled "Is China Displacing Traditional Aid Donors in Africa? The Evidence Suggests Not" by Haley J. Swedlund, Radboud University.
The study, which was based on interviews with 49 donor officials working for 23 different donor agencies in 15 African countries, noted that even though Chinese aid to Africa is growing estimates of its aid to Africa are often grossly inflated. She concluded that China rarely competes with traditional donors. Chinese official financing goes almost exclusively to state-owned Chinese companies.