The Institute for Security Studies (ISS) published in October 2015 a study titled "Violent Islamist Extremism and Terror in Africa" by Jakkie Cilliers, executive director of ISS in Pretoria. The paper presents on overview of large-scale violence by Islamist extremists in key African countries, especially Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, and Somalia.
ISS published in October 2015 a companion piece by Cilliers titled "Future (Im)perfect? Mapping Conflict, Violence and Extremism in Africa." It examines the high levels of non-state conflict in the Middle East and Africa compared to the rest of the world and the systemic imbalances that drive instability.